World Bank / ILO / UNESCO joint study

Building Better Formal TVET Systems - Principles and Practice in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

A joint study by the World Bank, the ILO, and UNESCO emphasizes the need for TVET in low- and middle-income countries to adapt to globalization, technological progress, demographic changes, and climate change.

This joint study by the World Bank, ILO, and UNESCO reveals that TVET systems in many low- and middle-income countries are ill-equipped for labour market demands and expected TVET growth. Challenges like learner difficulties, inadequate teacher support, and limited incentives for providers hinder TVET effectiveness. Disparities in access and quality across countries also undermine its potential. Well-performing TVET systems are vital to address youth unemployment, reduce inequalities, and promote lifelong learning. To improve TVET, focus on:

1) Striving for Excellence – demand-driven skills, flexible pathways, and foundational and technical skills;

2) Results-oriented focus – accountability, quality assurance, and realigned financing;

3) Evidence-based decision-making – data collection on TVET returns, skills needs, and inputs.


Implementing these changes will make TVET responsive, outcome-oriented, and effective in meeting labour market demands while reducing inequalities and promoting sustainable employment.