Publications on Wages

July 2022

  1. ILO Working paper 72

    Why should we integrate income and employment support? A conceptual and empirical investigation

    18 July 2022

    This paper conceptualizes, for the first time, the implementation of policy approaches that integrate active labour market policies within income support schemes, focusing on low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We develop a conceptual framework to understand how integrated policies can address labour market challenges, exploring the theoretical effects they exert on selected labour market and social dimensions. We compare this to the empirical literature, which does not always find that policies are effective. To reconcile this discrepancy, we investigate the design and implementation of integrated approaches across LMIC and identify factors which contribute to their effectiveness.

  2. Executive Summary

    The gender pay gap in the health and care sector: A global analysis in the time of COVID-19

    13 July 2022

  3. Report

    The gender pay gap in the health and care sector: A global analysis in the time of COVID-19

    13 July 2022

June 2022

  1. Decent Work in Garment Supply Chains Asia

    Employment, wages and productivity in the Asian garment sector: Taking stock of recent trends

    24 June 2022

    The report takes stock of employment, wages and productivity in the Asian garment sector by exploring data and policy insights to highlight trends, patterns and ways forward for a better future of work. By utilising updated data insights, the report outlines persisting decent work deficits as the garment sector evolves, and the prioritised support needed to overcome such challenges.

  2. ILO Working paper 70

    A global analysis of worker protest in digital labour platforms

    21 June 2022

    This paper presents findings from the Leeds Index of Platform Labour Protest, a database of platform worker protest events around the world in four platform sectors: ride-hailing, food delivery, courier services and grocery delivery for the period January 2017 to July 2020. The findings show that the single most important cause of platform worker protest is pay, followed by employment status, and health and safety.

  3. Paper

    Pay transparency legislation: Implications for employers' and workers' organizations

    21 June 2022

  4. Publication

    Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean (Number 26): Real wages during the pandemic: trends and challenges

    16 June 2022

    This edition of the Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean report, jointly prepared twice-yearly by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) analyses the effects of and recovery from the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in the region’s labor markets in 2021, spotlighting the evolution of real wages.

  5. Report

    Gender Pay Gap in Portugal

    14 June 2022

May 2022

  1. ILO Working paper 65

    Skills and employment transitions in Brazil

    31 May 2022

    This paper analyses employment transitions and workers’ skills in Brazil between 2003 to 2018, developing a novel procedure to derive a measure of occupational distance and internationally comparable skill measures from occupations’ task descriptions. Against a number of outcomes, workers using non-routine cognitive skills are found to perform better, while routine and non-routine manual workers are worse off in the labour market. Overall, there have been signs of routine-biased technological change and employment polarization since the 2014 Brazilian economic crisis.

  2. Employment Working Group

    Towards more effective labour protection for all workers and increased resilience of the economy

    20 May 2022

    This paper prepared by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) together with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for the 2nd G20 Employment Working Group meeting addresses the need to adapt and revise labour protection measures to match the increasing diversity of working arrangements. The COVID-19 pandemic has further highlighted the importance of inclusive labour protection for the resilience of workers, their families, and business sustainability. To reduce inequalities and across workers and to strengthen their resilience in the face of new crises, labour protection needs to be inclusive, adequate and effective. This involves strengthening and extending existing forms of labour protection, while also exploring new forms of protection, and improving their implementation through more effective compliance strategies.