Three chapters deal specifically with labour migration
To be labelled a “migrant” obviously has major consequences for the so-labelled.”"
Research on the economic contribution of immigrants has expanded in line with the growing importance of migration flows, and often supports the economic case for diversity."
Theo Sparreboom, Sarah Kups, Jesse Mertens and Sandra Berger examine the economic case for diversity from a macro perspective, looking at economies as a whole (as opposed to the enterprise level), by discussing the economic contribution of immigration in a Chapter entitled Diversity, migration and the economy. The Chapter reviews available evidence regarding both developed and developing economies and analyses issues such as immigration and per capita income; labour productivity, including in contexts with considerable low-skilled immigration; and immigration and entrepreneurship. The authors find among other things that the relatively high share of employed persons among migrants tends to have a positive effect on income per capita in host economies. In terms of productivity, they show that efficiency gains are possible through task specialization, competition, and the adoption of new techniques. However, they warn that some of the alleged gains in productivity could come at the expense of decent working conditions for migrant workers.
By tying workers to specific employers, employer-tying policies have indeed been shown to negatively impact (im)migrant workers’ fundamental right to physical liberty or mobility in the country."
In a Chapter on State restriction of workers’ rights to equality, liberty, security and access to justice through employer-tied labour (im)migration programmes, Eugénie Depatie-Pelletier, Hannah Deegan and Marie-Eveline Touma describe migrants’ exclusion via programme design and suggest ways to overcome this. Temporary foreign worker programmes that have become a worldwide phenomenon usually rely on a variety of State-implemented obstacles to workers’ ability to exit their employment relationship, by associating the act of quitting or losing one’s job with risks of one or several State sanctions, such as nullifying the authorization to work or reside in the country. The authors show how these schemes have led to worker segregation in Canada and how particularly low-skilled migrants, often from developing countries, have no possibility to integrate. Among the key elements for better designed temporary labour migration they list: the criminalization of offering employer-tying work arrangements; independent access to legal status renewal and consolidation procedures; government-run national inspection and (re-)placement services; and government-funded unbiased community integration services.