Publications on Equality and discrimination

March 2011

  1. Meeting document

    Report VI - Social security for social justice and a fair globalization

    08 March 2011

    This report seeks to inform the debate during the 100th Session of the International Labour Conference by providing: (a) an overview of the present state of social security around the world; (b) an identification of the main social security challenges; (c) an overview of national and ILO responses to the challenges; and (d) suggestions for the direction of future ILO action.

February 2011

  1. Meeting document

    Report of the Director-General, Third Supplementary Report: An update on the Participatory Gender Audits and future prospects

    23 February 2011

    This paper presents the Participatory Gender Audit (PGA) and its development over the last ten years as a tool for assessing progress towards gender equality. It reports on both the internal and external results achieved and lists the countries where constituents and partners have undertaken PGAs and related training. It also highlights the recognition of the PGA by the UN system as an acknowledged methodology for gender mainstreaming at the operational level. The paper points out that further adaptations and innovative use of the PGA, including new ways of financing and expanding international interest, are being explored.

  2. Working paper

    Issues in labour market inequality and women’s participation in India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme

    14 February 2011

    This paper focuses on women’s participation in the NREGP and analyses the potential impact of the programme in the medium term on women’s access to wage work and wages of women workers in rural India.

  3. Meeting document

    General Observation (CEACR) - Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169) - Adopted 2010, published 100th ILC session (2011)

    07 February 2011

January 2011

  1. Publication

    Selected Perspectives on the Enabling Environment for Women's Entrepreneurs in Malawi

    31 January 2011

    Assessment Report

  2. Publication

    Breaking the rural poverty cycle: Getting girls and boys out of work and into school

    28 January 2011

    Instead of attending school, millions of girls and boys in rural areas worldwide are child labourers. They are everywhere, but often hidden, on farms, on fishing boats, in plantations, in mountain areas, herding livestock or toiling as domestic servants. Child labour perpetuates a cycle of poverty for the children involved, their families and communities. Without education, these rural boys and girls are likely to be the poor of tomorrow. Policies must address the root causes of child labour and promote decent work for adults in rural areas.

  3. Publication

    Making migration work for women and men in rural labour markets

    28 January 2011

    Many poor rural households see migration to urban or other rural areas, or abroad, as a strategy to escape poverty or improve the quality of their lives. Migration patterns vary by continent and even countries within continents, and change over time. One of the most significant changes in the last half century is the increasing proportion of women migrating: today, they constitute half of the international migrant population, often migrating independently as the main economic providers for their families. Driven by economic, social and political forces as well as new challenges (such as environmental degradation, natural disasters or climate change impacts), migration can bring, both benefits and costs to the migrants themselves, their families, and their communities of origin and destination, depending on the migrants’ profile and gender, and on labour market specificities.

  4. Publication

    Women in infrastructure works: Boosting gender equality and rural development!

    28 January 2011

    Gender is an important but largely neglected aspect of infrastructure planning and provision. Rural women pay a particularly high price for the lack of infrastructure, in time spent accessing water for domestic or agricultural uses, processing and marketing food and other agricultural or non-farm products, collecting firewood and reaching health services for themselves and their families. This ‘time poverty’ limits their ability to develop or access complementary sources of income. Rural infrastructure programmes can enhance women’s participation and benefits – as workers during construction and as beneficiaries of the asset(s) created.

  5. Publication

    Agricultural value chain development: Threat or opportunity for women’s employment?

    28 January 2011

    Agricultural markets are rapidly globalizing, generating new consumption patterns and new production and distribution systems. Value chains, often controlled by multinational or national firms and supermarkets, are capturing a growing share of the agri-food systems in developing regions. They can provide opportunities for quality employment for men and women, yet they can also be channels to transfer costs and risks to the weakest nodes, particularly women. They often perpetuate gender stereotypes that keep women in lower paid, casual work and do not necessarily lead to greater gender equality.

  6. Publication

    Rural women’s entrepreneurship is “good business”!

    28 January 2011

    Rural women increasingly run their own enterprises, yet their socio-economic contributions and entrepreneurial potential remain largely unrecognized and untapped. They are concentrated in informal, micro-size, low productivity and low-return activities. Enabling and gender responsive policies, services and business environments are crucial to stimulate the start up and upgrading of women’s businesses and thereby help generate decent and productive work, achieve gender equality, reduce poverty and ensure stronger economies and societies.