Tools: Developing an institutional framework for social dialogue

Institutional framework for social dialogue in Norway

Norway facilitates social dialogue in the TVET sector by various means and on several different levels. Under the national law, the social partners have representatives, usually consituting the majority, in all important advisory bodies at national and county level for upper secondary TVET (including apprenticeship). The key bodies are listed below:

  • the National Council for Vocational Education and Training (Samarbeidsrådet for yrkesopplæring (SRY)) gives strategic advice on quality issues
  • nine sectoral vocational training councils (Faglige råd) advise on individual trades within their spheres of responsibility, curriculum development and quality issues
  • the Vocational Training Board (Yrkesopplæringsnemnda) for each county advises on regional issues, including career guidance, regional development and the provision of apprenticeship in their county to meet local labour market needs
  • trade-specific examination boards (Prøvenemnder) in each county are responsible for the trade and journeyman’s examinations
  • national and regional TVET appeals boards (Klagenemnder) deal with appeals in the event of failure in the trade and journeyman’s final examination.
Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training (2014) Apprenticeship-type schemes and structured work-based learning programmes,

Social dialogue platform in Germany

In Germany, a social dialogue platform supports the development of collaboration between the key partners in quality apprenticeship. The Board of the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) is the German government’s statutory advisory body in fundamental matters relating to vocational education and training. Representatives of employers’ and workers’ organizations, Germany’s federal states and the federal government work together on the Board, with each group having an equal share of the votes. One of the key responsibilities of the Board is to approve the draft vocational training regulations. The Board is supported by a standing committee, two subcommittees, working groups and the BIBB.

Other important social dialogue formats in Germany are located at the meso and micro level.


Apprenticeship Steering and Technical Committees in Zanzibar

In Zanzibar, Tanzania, a Steering Committee and a Technical Commitee direct the development and management of apprenticeship programmes. The two commitees work closely together, with a clear division of roles and responsibilities between the stakeholders.

The Steering Committee acts as a strategic, advisory body in the development and implementation of apprenticeship programmes, cooperating with high-level government officials to ensure that the programme is properly aligned with the country’s priorities, while the Technical Committee’s responsibilities include performing technical-level activities and advising the Steering Committee on any issues relating to apprenticeship programme implementation.


Developing social dialogue skills through role play: A training exercise

The International Training Centre of the ILO (ITC ILO) and the ILO have developed a tool to build the social dialogue skills of government and social partners. This is a role playing exercise in which participants work on a fictitious apprenticeship example, playing the role of either the Government or an employers’ or workers’ organization (but which cannot be the participants’ current role). This role playing exercise can be used during training programmes or in strategy development and planning meetings.