1. The jobs gap: Measuring labour underutilisation beyond unemployment

    15 February 2024

    An indicator recently developed by the ILO, the jobs gap, is shown to be an important complement to the unemployment rate. The indicator is particularly relevant to assess the difficulties that women face in finding a job. It also highlights job creation challenges in the developing world.


  1. Statistical Methodology Series 11 - Identification of informality through labour force surveys

    20 December 2023

    The topic of this report is the identification of informality in line with the resolution concerning statistics on the informal economy adopted at the 21st ICLS. Key findings and conclusions are presented from the different stages of testing, along with their implications for questionnaire design and content. Ensuring that informal employment and informal sector are measured well and with a gender perspective is key to improving our understanding the characteristics of women’s and men’s work.

  2. Statistical Methodology Series 10 - Identification of ICSE-18 through labour force surveys

    20 December 2023

    This report illustrates Key findings and implications for questionnaire design obtained from the pilot studies carried out by the ILO in Uganda and Peru in relation to the identification of status in employment based on the International Classification of Status in Employment (ICSE-18). Working relationships are inextricably linked to - and have direct implications for - the identification and measurement of informality. Thus, ensuring both are measured well is key to improving our understanding of informality.

  3. Statistical Methodology Series 9 - Engendering informality project

    20 December 2023

    The report provides an overview of the labour force survey pilot studies carried out by the ILO Department of Statistics in Uganda and Peru under the Engendering Informality Statistics project funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The main activity of the project was to test statistical concepts and measurement approaches in household survey questionnaires to generate evidence on what works when collecting data with a gender lens.

  4. The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) companion guide

    03 October 2023

    The ‘ISCO-08 companion guide’ is intended to aid in the systematic implementation and use of ISCO-08 in various operations and/or to assist in developing or updating a national occupation classification in line with ISCO-08. It covers various useful topics and includes examples derived from countries practices.

  5. International Classification of Status in Employment (ICSE-18) Manual

    21 September 2023

    A resolution adopted at the 20th ICLS includes a new international classification of status in employment (ICSE-18). This draft manual describes the revised classification, how it differs from the previous version, and how to implement it in a household survey.

  6. Labour Market Information Systems - Brief description and ILO Toolkit

    25 May 2023

  7. New data shine light on gender gaps in the labour market

    05 March 2023

  8. Own-use provision of services: Measurement guide

    14 February 2023

    Guidance on implementing the ILO add-on module for own-use provision of services in national labour force surveys.


  1. Engendering informality statistics: gaps and opportunities

    21 November 2022

    Informality is a dynamic and multidimensional concern that demands gender-sensitive data. In 2018, globally, more than 60% of employment was informal. However, global averages hide that in more countries the share of women in informal employment exceeds that of men. Also, women in the informal economy are often in the most unprotected situations – as domestic workers, home-based workers and contributing family workers – where a lack of visibility can increase their vulnerability.