This is an easy-to-use manual to help understand ILO Convention No. 169 and how it can be used to gain recognition, promotion and protection of indigenous and tribal peoples’ rights. While the manual does not explain each article of the Convention, it does focus on key concepts such as human rights, culture, land, development, education and health. For easy reference, the article or articles of the Convention which are being discussed are included. The manual includes a descriptive explanation of each article and introduces concepts by providing examples and experiences from indigenous and tribal peoples to further demonstrate the articles of the Convention in a practical way.